Dam online monitoring
As of 2016, China has built more than 87,000 dams of various types of reservoirs, playing an important role in economic construction and social development. However, due to people's influence on natural forces (such as floods and earthquakes), material properties, structural mechanisms (such as structural instability mechanism), construction control (such as concrete temperature control, filling density), and man-made damage, etc. The understanding of factors is not sufficient. At present, the operating age of many dams has reached 30 to 50 years. Some dams have even exceeded the design service period, and there are serious safety risks. In order to allow these hidden dangers to be monitored in a timely manner, urgently needed to be effective. Monitoring measures to ensure the safety of the reservoir dam.
Monitoring projects and distribution
Monitoring system layout
Surface displacement monitoring
The surface displacement of a reservoir dam can be monitored by a GPS monitoring system combined with a surface displacement sensor. The GPS monitoring system uses the navigation and positioning signals sent by the GPS/BeiDou satellites to perform space resection surveys to determine the three-dimensional coordinates of the ground to be measured; the surface displacement sensors monitor the displacement and deformation of the dam surface in real time, through triggering acquisition or real-time acquisition. Use wired/wireless long-distance network to transmit real-time data to the monitoring center to timely understand the development of displacement and deformation of the dam body.
Internal deformation monitoring
The internal deformation of the dam is monitored by a guide wheel fixed inclinometer. After the guide wheel fixed inclinometer connecting rod is connected, it is installed in the corresponding position of the inclinometer with guide groove to monitor the internal deformation of the dam and judge the possible risk in time.
Immersion line monitoring
In order to ensure the stability of the dam, it is necessary to monitor the seepage line of the dam. During the monitoring, the water level pipe was buried in the dam body, the pore water pressure gauge was placed in the water level pipe, the water level in the pressure pipe was monitored in real time, the infiltration surface was drawn, the change of the water level in the dam body was determined, and the safety of the dam body was evaluated by combining theoretical analysis.
Water level monitoring
It is mainly used to monitor the change of the water level of the reservoir in real time, especially during the rainy season and production discharge in the flood season. The real-time monitoring of the water level data in the reservoir area is used to guide production, and it is used in conjunction with other monitoring systems for comprehensive analysis, such as rainfall. The impact of the situation on the water level of the reservoir area, such as whether the change of the water level in the reservoir area has significant influence on the saturation line.
The rain gauge is placed at a location around the dam body to obtain rainfall in the reservoir area, because rainfall is also an important influence on the safety of the dam. If heavy rain is reduced, certain measures must be taken.